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  When talking Dependency Injection, if a class implementing Interface1 needs an implementation of Interface2 in its constructor and the implementation for Interface2 needs an implementation of Interface1 you get a circular dependency error. This could be fixed, though, by providing lazy proxy implementations, which would also fix issues with resources getting allocated too early and other similar issues.  Now, theoretically this is horrible. Yet in practice one meets this situation a lot. This post will attempt to clarify why this happens and how practice may be different from theory.

Problem definition

  Let's start with defining what an interface is. Wikipedia says it's a shared boundary between components. In the context of dependency injection you often hear about the Single Responsibility Principle, which stipulates that a class (and by extension an interface) should only do one thing. Yet even in this case, the implementation for any of the Facade, Bridge, Decorator, Proxy and Adapter software patterns would do only one thing: to proxy, merge or split the functionality of other components, regardless of how many and how complex they are. Going to the other extreme, one could create an interface for every conceivable method, thus eliminating the need for circular dependencies and also loading code that is not yet needed. And then there are the humans writing the code. When you need a service to provide the physical location of the application you would call it ILocationService and when you want to compute the distance between two places you would use the same, because it's about locations, right? Having an ILocationProviderService and an ILocationDistanceCalculator feels like overkill. Imagine trying to determine if a functionality regarding locations is already implemented and going through all the ILocation... interfaces to find out, then having to create a new interface when you write the code for it and spending sleepless nights wondering if you named things right (and if you need to invalidate their cache).

  In other words, depending on context, an interface can be anything, as arbitrarily complex as the components it separates. They could contain methods that are required by other components together with methods that require other components. If you have more such interfaces, you might end up with a circular dependency in the instantiation phase even if the execution flow would not have this problem. Let's take a silly example.

  We have a LocationService and a TimeService. One handles points in space the other moments in time. And let's say we have the entire history of someone's movements. You could get a location based on the time provided (GetLocation) or get the time based on a provided location (GetTime). Now, the input from the user is text, so we need the LocationService and the TimeService to translate that text into actual points in space and moments in time, so GetLocation would use an ITimeService, while GetTime would use an ILocationService. You start the program and you get the circular dependency error. I told you it would be silly. Anyway, you can split any of the services into ITimeParser and ITimeManager or whatever, you can create a new interface called ITextParser, there are a myriad refactoring solutions. But what if you don't have the luxury to refactor and why do you even need to do anything? Surely if you call GetLocation you only need to parse the time, you never call GetTime, and the other way around.


  A possible solution is to only actually get the dependency implementation when you use it. Instead of providing the actual implementation for the interface you need, you provide a lazy proxy. Here is an example of a generic (and lazy one liner) LazyProxy implementation:

public class LazyProxy<TInterface>:Lazy<TInterface>
    public LazyProxy(IServiceProvider serviceProvider) : base(() => serviceProvider.GetService<TInterface>()) { }

  Problem solved, right? LocationService would ask for a LazyProxy<ITimeService> implementation, GetLocation would do _lazyTimeService.Value.ParseTime(input) which would instantiate a TimeService for the first time, which would ask for a LazyProxy<ILocationService> and in GetTime it would use _lazyLocationService.Value.ParseLocation(input) which would get the existing instance of LocationService (if it's registered as Singleton). Imagine either of these services would have needed a lot of other dependencies.

  Now, that's what called a "leaky abstraction". You are hiding the complexity of instantiating and caching a service (and all of its dependencies) until you actually use it. Then you might get an error, when the actual shit hits the actual fan. I do believe that the term "leaky" might have originated from the aforementioned idiom. Yuck, right? It's when the abstraction leaked the complexity that lies beneath.

  There are a number of reasons why you shouldn't do it. Let's get through them.


  The most obvious one is that you could do better. The design in the simple and at the same time contrived example above is flawed because each of the services are doing two very separate things: providing a value based on a parameter and interpreting text input. If parsing is a necessary functionality of your application, then why not design an ITextParser interface that both services would use? And if your case is that sometimes you instantiate a class to use one set of functions and sometimes to use another set of functions, maybe you should split that up into two. However, in real life situations you might not have full control over the code, you might not have the resources to refactor the code. Hell, you might be neck deep in spaghetti code! Have you ever worked in one of those house of cards companies where you are not allowed to touch any piece of code for fear it would all crash?

  The next issue is that you would push the detection for a possible bug to a particular point of the execution of your code. You would generate a Heisenbug, a bug that gets reproduced inconsistently. How appropriate this would have been if an IMomentumService were used as well. Developers love Heisenbugs, as the time for their resolution can vary wildly and they would be forced to actually use what they code. Oh, the humanity! Yet, the only problem you would detect early is the cycle in the dependency graph, which is more of a design issue anyway. A bug in the implementation would still be detected when you try to use it. 

  One other issue that this pattern would solve should not be there in the first place: heavy resource use in constructors. Constructors should only construct, obviously, leaving other mechanisms to handle the use of external resources. But here is the snag: if you buy into this requirement for constructors you already use leaky abstractions. And again, you might not be able to change the constructors.

  Consider, though, the way this pattern works. It is based on the fact that no matter when you request the instantiation of a class, you would have a ready implementation of IServiceProvider. The fact that the service locator mechanism exists is already lazy instantiation on the GetService method. In fact, this lazy injection pattern is itself a constructor dependency injection abstraction of the service provider pattern. You could just as well do var timeService = _serviceProvider.GetService<ITimeService>() inside your GetLocation method and it would do the exact same thing. So this is another reason why you should not do it: mixing the metaphors. But hey! If you have read this far, you know that I love mixing those suckers up!


  In conclusion, I cannot recommend this solution if you have others like refactoring available. But in a pinch it might work. Let me know what you think!

  BTW, this issue has been also discussed on Stack Overflow, where there are some interesting answers. 


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