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I was doing this silly HackerRank algorithm challenge and I got the solution correctly, but it would always time out on test 7. I wracked my brain on all sorts of different ideas but to no avail. I was ready to throw in the towel and check out other people solutions, only they were all in C++ and seemed pretty similar to my own. And then I've made a code change and the test passed. I had replaced LINQ's OrderBy with Array.Sort.

Intrigued, I started investigating. The idea was creating a sorted integer array from a space delimited string of values. I had used Console.ReadLine().Split(' ').Select(s=>int.Parse(s)).OrderBy(v=>v); and it consumed above 7% of the total CPU of the test. Now I was using var arr=Console.ReadLine().Split(' ').Select(s=>int.Parse(s)).ToArray(); Array.Sort(arr); and the CPU usage for that piece of the code was 1.5%. So it was almost five times slower. How do the two implementations differ?

Array.Sort should be simple: an in place quicksort, the best general solution for this sort (heh heh heh) of problem. How about Enumerable.OrderBy? It returns an OrderedEnumerable which internally uses a Buffer<T> to get all the values in a container, then uses an EnumerableSorter to ... quicksort the values. Hmm...

Let's get back to Array.Sort. It's not as straightforward as it seems. First of all it "tries" a SZSort. If it works, fine, return that. This is an external native code implementation of QuickSort on several native value types. (More on that here) Then it goes to a SorterObjectArray that chooses, based on framework target, to use either an IntrospectiveSort or a DepthLimitedQuickSort. Even the implementation of this DepthLimitedQuickSort is much, much more complex than the quicksort used by OrderBy. IntrospectiveSort seems to be the one preferred for the future and is also heavily optimized, but less complex and easier to understand, perhaps. It uses quicksort, heapsort and insertionsort together.

Now, before you go all "OrderBy sucks!", read more about it. This StackOverflow list of answers seems to indicate that in case of strings, at least, the performance is similar. A lot of other interesting things there, as well. OrderBy uses a "stable" QuickSort, meaning that two items that are compared as equal will appear in their original order. Array.Sort does not guarantee that.

Anyway, the performance difference in my particular case seems to come from the native code implementation of the sort for integers, rather than algorithmic improvements, although I don't have the time right now to grab the various implementations and test them properly. However, just from the way the code reads, I would bet the IntrospectiveSort will compare favorably to the simple Quicksort implementation used in OrderBy.


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