Station Eleven started really well. It had the fresh scene setup, the internal thoughts of a complex character, a dissection of actual motivations and emotions, rather than cardboard cliches. Because I have a bunch of books to read and when I start reading I just pick one at random, I didn't know what it was about, and so I had that feeling of "Oh well, it's not sci-fi or fantasy, but I like the writing!". I was convinced I was going to like the book.

  A chapter later and there is a killer epidemic starting. One chapter later twenty years have passed and everybody except young people are alive in a post apocalyptic non technological world. I just couldn't go on. The complex character at the beginning and the interesting setup had been completely obliterated and replaced with tired formulaic ideas. I couldn't care less about any of the new characters or what was going to happen. I don't know what Emily St. John Mandel was thinking when she started writing the book, but it is clearly not for me.

  One of the main reasons to put the book down and not continue reading was the lazy and unscientific treatment of the killer pandemic. We are talking about a flu virus that infects just by breathing for a few seconds next to someone, then disabled those people within a day. Viruses like this do not spread! Moreover, there is no way that a flu virus kills everybody. There are always exceptions, whether due to immunity, isolation or other factors. I love pandemic stories, I read them all with glee, and I did that way before the current situation, and when I see one that teaches nothing, because the epidemic is just a prop in an otherwise unrelated story, I get frustrated.

  A few years ago I was watching a movie with my wife. We both didn't quite enjoy it, but were curious on how it ended, so I told her to skip scenes to get to the end. She was skipping all the scenes I was interested in and watching the ones I couldn't care less about. This book is the same. I understand why people would like it, as I said, the writing was good, but the focus of the story and the characters were in complete opposition to my own interests.

  Almost a year ago I was reading Vaccinated, by Paul A. Offit, an ode to vaccines and their de facto promoter in modern medicine, Maurice Hilleman. Offit was angry in the book when talking about the vaccine craze started by Andrew Wakefield, a self interested psychopath that gained money and fame while feeding on the fear and desperation of parents. Yet, he is not even close to how angry Seth Mnookin is in The Panic Virus, a book dedicated solely to exposing the roots and mechanisms of the industry of fear towards vaccines.

  The author systematically dissects, with proof and careful analysis, the entire argument of harmful vaccines causing autism, mercury poisoning or damaging immunity. Let me be as blunt as he is: the theory that vaccines cause autism has been thoroughly debunked and whoever continues to spout such nonsense has not read anything about the subject other than Facebook. Mnookin talks about Wakefield, David Kirby, Jenny McCarthy, Oprah Winfrey, exposing them for the profiteering promoters of deadly lies that they are. He talks about law trials and medical trials and research papers as they destroy any leg these theories stand on, but which never reach the news. He talks about devastated families, tricked into wasting their lives and money championing harmful ideas just for the tiny hope their child might get better.  

  However it is ironic that this book suffers from the same problems that made the vaccine argument lean so much towards the emotional, dramatic, sound-bite sized bullshit: it is technical, precise, verbose, intellectual. It is difficult to read the book because it engages with your brain, assaulting it with educated language and loads of information. Meanwhile, the opponents of the Mnookin's views use animated gifs with large colorful font texts and the occasional kitten. But it is a book that needs reading.

  Consider The Panic Virus as a form of vaccine itself. You need to read it so you don't fall prey to soulless predators that would use targeted well crafted yet completely misleading arguments to sway you to their side for their own profit. I am warning you, though, this is not a happy book. It made me question the worth of the human race as a whole. If such cheap techniques can be so effective in brainwashing so many people into believing absurd lies, then don't we deserve it, all the death and suffering? Aren't we failing at... I don't know, evolution? And the sad part is that most of the affected are fairly educated people, who start to rebel against "the establishment" and branch out into alternative theories without actually employing any technique of differentiating between fact and fallacy.

  Bottom line: I will rate this book the maximum value, because it is important to be read, but it is not a perfectly written piece of literature, nor it is easy to finish. But give it a try.

   You may have heard of Richard Feynman from several sources: he was a Nobel winning physicist, he worked in the team creating the first atomic bomb, he said many a smart thing that turned into memes at one time or another and is generally considered a genius. This book is a collection of short anecdotal stories put on paper from recorded interviews with the man, in which you will be surprised to see that he didn't really consider himself very smart. Instead, he was looking at situations where the solution seemed perfectly obvious and did not understand why other can't see it.

   I found the short tales pretty amusing, but also incredibly inspiring. Here is a physicist who makes a bet with an artist to makes one the teacher of the other, so that he learns to draw - something he feels to be impossible, and the artist understands more about science. In the end, Feynman sells paintings for money and the artist is none the wiser. Here is this person who at one time started fiddling with the safes in Los Alamos holding the secrets of the atomic bomb and found how easy it is to crack them. No one else thought it was easy. And above everything, he is always pranking people, making them believe he was smarter or more capable than he really was. But the joke was on him, because every time he did something, he really became good at it.

  The title says it all: "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!": Adventures of a Curious Character. If anything, he was very curious and kept his mind open to any experience. It's people like these that I admire and, of course, envy with all my being. Feynman seems not only to be a complete man, in both work, fun and personal life, but also get more from the same experience than anyone around him. I found that fascinating and therefore I invite you to read the book yourselves.

Why this article should never have been written

  It's a bit too early to do this. I am sure no one in their right mind would want to display any non-positive words about George Floyd at this moment for fear of reprisals. But I feel like that is exactly what must be done. If Floyd was an innocent victim, a hero that overcame his background only to be brought down, literally, by the heavy boot of law enforcement, then what chance do normal people have?

  I didn't want to be writing about this. I think that the entire thing has become grotesque and the only thing that could now bring these Whites and Blacks together, corrupt police and gangstas, racists and anti-racists... is me! I am sure that if I were to enter the argument, all these people angrily hating each other would come together in trying to murder me. Because while I understand both sides, I can't fully endorse any of them. Racists are just dumb. What the hell does race matter in anything? But I do understand anti-anti-racists, the ones that hate being put together with assholes because of the color of their skin. Anti-racism protesters are dumb. Well, maybe. I am sure all of this protesting is finally going to have an impact, and this is good, but have you seen some of these people? Manicaly jumping on toppled down statues and roaring in megaphones about how great they are because they oppose evil. In this whole discussion, again, normal people are left out. They are boring, they don't clump together, they don't stand out, each one has their own slightly different opinion. Well, this is mine.

The gentle giant saint versus the black monster

  Something happened today that pushed me to write this post. I saw a Facebook post that detailed the criminal record of George Floyd. Cocaine dealing, two armed robberies, one which held him back four years, addiction and, when he was arrested, metamfetamine and fentanyl in his blood and the incriminating fake twenty dollar bill. Was it true? It is a very important question to ask, because many of these things are complete bullshit. So I googled it. And the result was actually worse: almost nothing!

  There are just two websites that actually advertise Floyd's criminal record: Great Game India - self titled "Journal on Geopolitics and International Relations" and sporting articles like "Coronavirus Bioweapon - How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada and Weaponized It" and "How A Pornstar & Sci-Fi Writer Influenced WHO Policies On Hydroxychloroquine With Fake Data" - and The Courier Daily, which seems legit. Funny though, when you search for "George Floyd criminal record" you get Game India first and not The Daily Mail, which is linked in their article and who actually did the research and published the court documents attesting to that. They are fifth on the search page. More, during the writing of this blog post, the Courier Daily link disappeared from my Google search and Game India was demoted to second place, with a "gentle giant" story on top instead.

  Either way, other than Game India, no other news outlet even phrases the title as to indicate George had been a criminal. The few who tackle the subject: The Star, The Daily Mail itself and even The Courier Daily, just portray the man as a flawed individual who nevertheless was set to change, found religion and even moved to Minneapolis to escape his past. And I agree with this viewpoint, because as far as I can see, the armed robbery had been many years before and the man had changed, in both behavior and intent. But hiding this doesn't really help. The Daily Mail article was published on the 26th of May, one day after Floyd's death, and the information therein is either not discussed or spun into a "gentle giant" narrative. He was a bouncer before the Coronavirus hit and he lost his job. George the gentle bouncer?

  One thing is certain, when you search for George's criminal record, it's more likely you get to articles about the criminal records of the arresting officers or Mark Wahlberg's hate crimes than what you actually searched for.

How did George die and why it doesn't matter

  But there is more. How did George die? You would say that having a knee on their throat while they gasp for air saying "I can't breathe" would be enough. But it's not. Several different reports say different things. The first one preliminarily portrays Floyd as a very sick man: coronary artery disease, hypertensive heart disease, even Covid-19. There were "no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation", but instead they diagnosed it as a heart failure under stress and multiple intoxicants. Finally, two days later, the report admits "a cardiopulmonary arrest while being restrained" by officers who had subjected Floyd to "neck compression". But Floyd's family would not have that, so they commissioned their own autopsy. The result? Floyd died from "asphyxia due to compression of the neck", affecting "blood flow and oxygen going into the brain", and also from "compression of the back, which interferes with breathing". The medical examiner said Floyd had no underlying medical problem that caused or contributed to his death.

  So which was it? It doesn't really matter. He died with a knee on his neck, which should never happen to anyone, and both reports admit it was a homicide. But ignoring all of these other data points doesn't help. People just vilify the policeman and raise George to saintly status. You want to solve something? Start with the truth. All of it. Now both sides have the ammunition required to never change their minds.

  I have not found any article that makes a definitive claim on which report is the good one, if any. They all lean on believing the second, because it fits, but if the first one was a complete fabrication, why wasn't anyone charged with it?

Wikipedia v. Facebook

  So of course I would find about Floyd's criminal past from Facebook. It makes so much sense. It is a pool of hateful bile and rank outrage that brings ugly right up to the surface. But this time it pointed me towards an interesting (albeit short) investigation. Without it, I would have swallowed up the entire completely innocent victim narrative that is pushed on every media outlet. So, once in a blue moon, even Facebook is good for something.

  As you may have noticed above, I took some information from Wikipedia, which has an entire article dedicated to George Floyd's death. It is there where the information about his two medical autopsies is also published. On George Floyd's page, his early life consists of: basketball, football, his family calling him a gentle giant. Then he customized cars, did some rap and was an informal community leader. Only then did he get arrested a few times then put in jail for five years. He was charged in 2007, went to jail in 2009 and was released on 2013. It's just six years and it does not define a man, but try to say that to a police officer who has just read the fact sheet on his cruiser's terminal and has to arrest a 1.93m tall intoxicated man.

  And you may want to read the entire chain of events. The police didn't just put him on the ground, they talked to him, they put him in their car, they fought, they pulled him out, all while being filmed and surrounded by a crowd.

You will never gonna get it

  How much of this is truth and how much of it is spin? You will never know. There are so many people that have to justify their own shit using carefully chosen bits and pieces from this that there will never be a truthful image of who George Floyd was and what happened to him. He is now more than a man and also much less: he is a symbol, rallying people to cry out against injustice, as they see it. The greatest thing George Floyd ever did was die and after that he stopped being human. How sad is that?

  In truth, he was a flawed man. He was not perfect. He was your everyman. A policeman casually killing him while getting filmed doing it hurts on so many levels because that could be you. That was you or your friend or your relative somewhere. But no, they had to make it about being black and being the gentle giant and being killed by the bad psycho cop and his cronies. It sounds like a Hollywood movie because it is scripted as one. You can be certain that at this point several documentaries and movies are in the works about this. And when you'll see it, a big time celebrity will be interpreting Floyd and the cop will be played by that actor who plays psychos in every other movie because he has that face. Once you go black, you can never go back.

  I am not defending anyone here. As I said in the beginning, I am on nobody's side in this. I just hope no one will knee me or my friends to death while everybody films it down.

The world has spoken

  I find it amazing that the protests in Minneapolis have spread to the entire world. It makes me hope that they will slowly turn into protests about things that matter even more than the color of one's skin, like our responsibility as a community to carefully choose our guardians, like having to think for ourselves if something is right or wrong and maybe doing something about it. George Floyd was killed slowly, over nine minutes, while people stood around and filmed it. Not just the other officers, but civilian bystanders, too.

  There were people who did something. At one point a witness said: "You got him down. Let him breathe." Another pointed out that Floyd was bleeding from the nose. Another told the officers that Floyd was "not even resisting arrest right now". Yet another said "Get him off the ground ... You could have put him in the car by now. He's not resisting arrest or nothing. You're enjoying it. Look at you. Your body language explains it." But that's all they did. Wikipedia calls them "witnesses", but you have to wonder: what skin color were they? Were they afraid they would be next and that's why all they could was beg for George's life as he slowly died? Or did they believe the story that American TV has fed them for decades, that cops are ultimately good people who break the rules in order to protect the innocent? Or maybe a more recent belief had taken hold: that filming injustice makes you a hero and it's more than enough.

  The world has spoken. Racism must go, police brutality must go. Let's not replace them by carefully crafted fantasies, though. Let's see the truth as it is so we can make it better.

2020 is great so far

  I am not being sarcastic. After a virus that punched presidents of the free world and dictators alike in the nose, that made people question their fake feelings of safety and forced them to act, here comes this age of protesting how things are. We have been shaken awake. Will we fall asleep again? I am sure we will, but some things will have changed by then. And the year is not yet over.

  A Cavern of Black Ice is a huge 769 page long book, but only the beginning of a story that happens in a fictional realm of feudalism and magic. You just have to have the classic hero journey, starting with a young man torn from the world he knew and was comfortable to him, partially mentored by a wise and hitherto unknown relative, given a reason to trek on a perilous journey and beset by powerful, yet strangely ineffectual enemies. Of course, Deus ex Machina abilities that help him and his quarry escape tight situations are also there.

  But there is more: various clans living in a cold inhospitable North, the ambitious ruler of a city coveting the resources of said clans, a mysterious and powerful entity chained by the ruler, a strange and magical race of people even further north, a secret sorcerous society, female assassins that you can't quite remember what they look like, a dark realm where dangerous creatures await release and so on and so on.

  The thing to understand here is that J. V. Jones set to create a vast universe in which multiple interests clash to create a captivating story. The writing is good, the characters are decent, but there is something missing and while I can't quite put my finger on it, I suspect it involves editing. There is too much text for what the story wants to say and when characterisation is concerned, some actions or even complete characters are just pulled out of a hat. And remember, this is just one of at least four books in the Sword of Shadows series and it barely scratched the surface of it all.

  Bottom line: I liked the book, but not so much as to be absolutely certain I will continue to read the rest of the series. When I finished reading it I felt actual relief. If you want to spend some time immersed in a fantastic fantasy universe, this might be a good fit for you.

Intro

  So the requirement is "Write a class that would export data into a CSV format". This would be different from "Write a CSV parser", which I think could be interesting, but not as wildly complex as this. The difference comes from the fact that a CSV parser brings a number of problems for the interviewed person to think about right away, but then it quickly dries up as a source for intelligent debate. A CSV exporter seems much simpler, because the developer controls the output, but it increases in complexity as the interview progresses.

  This post is written from the viewpoint of the interviewer.

Setup

  First of all, you start with the most basic question: Do you know what CSV is? I was going to try this question out on a guy who came interviewing for senior developer and I was excited to see how it would go. He answered he didn't know what CSV was. Bummer! I was incredulous, but then I quickly found out he didn't know much else either. CSV is a text format for exporting a number of unidimensional records. The name comes from Comma Separated Values and might at first glance appear to be a tabular data format, an idea made even more credible by Excel being able to open and export .csv files. But it is not. As the name says, it has values separated by a comma. It might even be just one record. It might be containing multiple records of different types. In some cases, the separator for value and record are not even commas or newline.

  It is important to see how the interviewee explains what CSV is, because it is a concept that looks deceivingly simple. Someone who first considers the complexity of the format before starting writing the code works very differently in a team than someone who throws themselves into the code, confident (or just unrealistically optimistic) that they would solve any problem down the line.

  Some ideas to explore, although it pays off to not bring them up yourself:

  • What data do you need to export: arrays, data tables, list of records?
  • Are the records of the same type?
  • Are there restrictions on the type of record?
  • What separators will there be used? How to escape values that contain chosen separators?
  • Do values have restrictions, like not containing separators?
  • CSV header: do we support that? What does it mean in the context of different types of input? 
  • Text encoding, unicode, non-ASCII characters
  • How to handle null values?
  • Number and date formatting
  • Is there an RFC or a specification document for the CSV export format?

Implementation

  In this particular interview I have chosen that the CSV exporter class will only support an input of IEnumerable<T> (this is .NET speak for a bunch of objects of the same type).

  Give ample opportunities for questions from the person interviewed. This is not a speed test. It is important if the candidate considers by themselves issues like:

  • are the object properties simple types? Like string, long, integer, decimal, double, float, datetime?
  • since the requirement is any T, what about objects that are arrays, or self referencing, or having complex objects as properties?
  • how to extract the values of any object (discussions about .NET reflection or Javascript object property discovery show a lot about the interviewee, especially if they start said discussions)

  Go through the code with the candidate. This shows their ability to develop software. How will they name the class, what signature will they use for export method, how they structure the code and how readable it is.

  At this stage you should have a pretty good idea if the candidate is intelligent, competent and how they handle a complex problem from requirement to implementation.

Dig deeper

  This is the time to ask the questions yourself and see how they react to new information, the knowledge that they should have asked themselves the same questions and the stress of changing their design:

  • are comma and newline the only supported separators?
  • are separators characters or strings?
  • what if an exported value is a string containing a comma?
  • do you support values containing newline?
  • if you use quotes to hold a value containing commas and newlines, what happens if values contain quotes
  • empty or null values. Any difference? How to export them? What if the object itself is null?
  • how to handle the header of the CSV, where do you get the name of the properties?
  • what if the record type is an array or IEnumerable?
  • what will be the numeric and date formatting used for export?
  • does the candidate know what text encoding is? Which one will they use and why?

  How have the answers to these questions changed the design? Did the candidate redesign the work or held tight to the original idea and tried to fix everything as it comes?

  At this point you should know how the person being interviewed responds to new information, even scope creep and, maybe most importantly, to stress. But we're not done, are we?

Bring the pain

  Bring up the concept of unit testing. If you are lucky, the candidate already brought it up. Either way, now it is time to:

  • split the code into components: the reflection code, the export code, the file system code (if any).
  • abstract components into interfaces in order to mock them in unit tests
  • collect all the specifications gathered so far in order to cover all the cases
  • ask the candidate to write one unit test

Conclusion

  A seemingly simple question will take you and the interview candidate through:

  • finding out how the other person thinks
  • specification gathering
  • code design
  • implementation
  • technical knowledge in a multitude of directions
  • development process
  • separation of concerns, unit testing
  • human interaction in a variety of circumstances
  • determining how the candidate would fit in a team

Not bad for a one line question, right?

  It's very rare for me to have such a strong reaction to a book as I has to The Shallows. A combination of high expectations from the people who recommended it and the ironically poor quality of the book almost forced me to stop reading it. It gives me a great and perverse pleasure to summarize this book into a single paragraph: the Internet is bombarding us with information and stimuli, therefore training our brains to skim the surface of things and depriving us of the ability to "deep read", meaning slowly digesting large blocks of text and fully processing what we read is now difficult to impossible for most people. That is it! There is nothing else in this book. And the reason why this book was bad is that it brings nothing more to the original idea explored by the author in an Atlantic Monthly cover story than quotes from other people who agree.

  Nicholas Carr decries (and cries and cries) the way the medium of the information we digest is changing the way we process that information. He uses page long paragraphs filled with big words meant only to make him look well read to repeat the same things over and over again, all the while complaining about people skipping to the juicy parts. I mean, I've been known to use a few pompous words myself, but I don't think I've ever went out of my way to use complicated expressions when simpler ones would do.

  The multitude of citations from people ranging from ancient Greek philosophers to Artificial Intelligence scientists are cherry-picked to make his case of the demise of the "deep read" in favor of meaningless web skimming. Carr makes the correct case that too much information trains us to not completely absorb the content of the things we read, but he completely misses the mark on why that happens, ironically made evident by his style of writing: boring, pompous, long, verbose. In a classic (by now) bubble effect, he writes a book about his fears that no one but people who share those fears would actually be able to read.

  Also ironic is that he makes some predictions (in 2010) about artificial intelligence and how people will use the various (and nefarious) web services like Google Wave that now make one laugh out loud.

  The point, Carr, is that people who are bombarded with lots of information learn to quickly categorize that information, then send it in the correct bin. You skim an article, see that it is mostly word filling around a central idea, you extract that idea, then move on. There is no deep reading because there is no deep writing. It happens with books, too. One is quick to determine when one book is captivating, engaging and well researched rather than repetitive, single-sided and written for the pleasure of reading oneself and looking smug rather than for knowledge sharing or the pleasure of others. The point (made clearer by research in how AI systems designed after brains function) is that this is how brains have always worked: filtered out as much as possible of the meaningless and tried to absorb as quickly as possible the meaningful. It is literally a search for meaning, you buffoon!

  So, yes, no one finds the time to laboriously study a book, annotate it, keeping well received paragraphs and quips in notebooks they carry with them. But that is because there is more information out there that brings more value through its diversity. In a very sad way, The Shallows reminds me of those religious people who complained about how laic books made people not study the Bible and absorb its teachings.

  Now, the book is not completely without merit. It's just very annoying. The way we use our brains does change the abilities we later have. It's what brains are meant to do: adapt.

  Would it hurt to regularly take a break from distraction, reading something that we have decided is important and high quality, then taking the time to think and absorb and maybe reread what we thought was valuable? No, of course not. I am intimately familiar with the restlessness that comes when trying to spend more than an hour doing the same thing or keeping my attention focused on one thing only. In this, Carr is not wrong. But in assuming that slowly and carefully navigating an avalanche of information is possible, he is definitely going too far.

  Instead of complaining about how we don't absorb meaning because we are too busy filtering out noise, one could be optimistic about the ability of people, helped by technology and not despite it, to improve the way they separate chaff from wheat. Instead of decrying the size and complexity of the information that one must use, making it impossible to hold it all in one brain, why not enjoy the ability to collaborate, network and share that makes it possible for that information to be well processed by groups of people?

  Bottom line: the ideas explored in this book are conservative in nature, fearful of change, focused on what drives that change yet blind on where it takes us. It is the intellectual pompous version of the old man wagging his cane in the air, shouting in anger at young people. It is a book that examines one phenomenon without bringing one any closer to an understanding of it. Woe betide things will change! Well, duh!

  I want to write this post to talk about the most common mistake I make as a software developer, even after almost 20 years of experience. And it's not code related. It's more human. But I would also like to hear what you think your biggest mistakes are that are not related to lack of experience. Don't be shy!

  My mistake: assumptions.

  I was assigned this bug recently and, wanting to do a fast job and impress people, I investigated the code, noticed a bug, fixed it, then immediately gave it in for review. I had reasons for doing that, because I was new and did not know the application well. The leads would tell me if they thought I did not find the problem. But, out of the goodness of my heart, you see, I've decided to test the fix as well. And I discovered that the feature was barely implemented. It was not a bug, it was a full fuck up.

  What happened here? I assumed a certain quality of the code and expected, without any reasonable evidence, to find a small typo or a logic bug that would be solved by writing a few lines of code. Instead, I had to reimplement the whole thing as a fix, I pissed off the lead devs because they had enough on their plate and made the entire team wonder what I was doing there. I mean, I haven't even tested the fix!

  Doing things fast means working on valid assumptions that allow you to cut corners. In a new environment, with a team you are not familiar with and a code base you don't understand, you do not have the luxury to make assumptions. Instead, do a good job first: investigate thoroughly, see what the reported problem is, find the actual problem (which may be different), come with an attack plan, implement it, then test that it had the desired result. Yes, it takes more time than to quickly compile the logic flow in your head and hope for the best, but in some places you don't get second chances at fixing things, teams are more formal, processes need to be followed. Optimism is also based on assumptions. Be a realist instead.

  In order to win a game you need to know its rules. That applies both to development process and to local politics, which sometimes are more important than the work. Once you are a good player, you can start experimenting. The title "senior developer" is not given in a vacuum, but is relevant (or not) depending on the environment. Yes, you have experience, but you don't have *this* experience yet. In my desire to be efficient and fast I didn't do anything right and I couldn't believe I have been that stupid.

  Now, how about you? What are your silly mistakes that you can't believe you are still making?

  It was more than two years ago when I was reading the first four books in the series and not being very impressed. Then there was a long break in which I wasn't really interested in reading the fifth and last: The Dark Talent. But I am a big fan of Brandon Sanderson so I finally read it. It's very short, pretty pointless and ends badly. And by badly I mean written in a bad way, which is quite unexpected, but even worse, it ends in a cliffhanger, pending a sixth book.

  The entire series is tonally all over the place, but I remember for the first books it kind of grew on me, even if it was funny one moment, tense the next, breaking the fourth wall immediately after. The Dark Talent, though, I hated! I couldn't empathise with any of the characters, I found the jokes elaborate yet dull and the twists were obvious chapters before.

  I guess Sanderson can't do only good. He has to vent the silly and the bad and the weird in order to write the good ones like The Reckoners and Elantris. I am pretty sure I will not read any of the books in this series.

  I am subscribed to the StackOverflow newsletter and most of the times the "top" questions there are really simple things that gain attention from a lot of people. Today I got one question that I would have thought has an obvious answer, but it did not.

  The question was what does "asdf".replace(/.*/g,"x") return? 

  And the answer to the question "What does a regular expression replace of everything with x return?" is.... [Ba da bum!] "xx".

  The technical answer is there in the StackOverflow question, but I am gonna walk you through some steps to get to understand this the... dumb way.

  So, let's try variations on the same theme. What does "asdf".matchAll(/.*/g) return? Well, first of all, in Chrome, it returns a RegExpStringIterator, which is pretty cool, because it's already using the latest Javascript features and it is returning an iterator rather than an array. But we can just use Array.from on it to get an array of all matches: for "asdf" and for "".

  That's a pretty clear giveaway. Since the regular expression is a global one, it will get a match, then the next one until there is nothing left. First match is "asdf" as expected, the next one is "", which is the rest of the string and which also matches .* Why is it, then, that it doesn't go into a stack overflow (no pun intended) and keep turning up empty strings? Again, it's an algorithm described in an RFC and you need a doctorate in computer science to read it. Well, it's not that complicated, but I did promise a dumb explanation.

   And that is that after you get a match on an index, the index is incremented. First match is found at index 0, the next one at 4. There are no matches from index 5 on.

   Other variations on this theme are "asdf".matchAll(/.?/g), which will return "a","s","d","f","". You can't do "asdf".matchAll(/.*/) , you get a TypeError: undefineds called with a non-global RegExp argument error that really doesn't say much, but you can do "asdf".match(/.*/g) which returns just an array of strings, rather than more complex objects. You can also do

var reg = /.*/g;
console.log(reg.exec("asdf"),reg.exec("asdf"),reg.exec("asdf"),reg.exec("asdf"))

This more classic approach will return "asdf", "", "", "" and it would continue to return empty strings ad infinitum!

But how should one write a regular expression to get what you wanted to get, a replacement of everything with x? /.+/g would work, but it would not match an empty string. On the other hand, when was the last time you wanted to replace empty strings with anything?

  The first 20% of Gods of Jade and Shadow has nothing to do with anything fantastic. Since I have a large collection of books and choosing which to read more or less at random, I was afraid that I chose one of those young girl coming of age stories, because basically the first fifth of the book is a Cinderella story. Nothing wrong with that, just I didn't feel like reading such a story then and I almost stopped reading it. But a few days later I kept going.

  And the book picked up, with the introduction of Mayan gods, only that afterwards it all turned into one of the watered down episodes of American Gods from the TV show (not the book, which was great!). It's a big road trip, with enough information to basically know where the characters will end up and in what state they will get there. The only unknowns were the bits of Mayan mythology, which were nice, but not nearly comprehensive, and the final chapter. And the final chapter is full of symbolism, only I felt that it didn't have a lot to do with the rest of the book. Worse, a lot of the characters introduced in that first 20% were basically abandoned for the rest of the story. It was like Silvia Moreno-Garcia started to write something, then she thought of a cool ending and then she abruptly veered off and filled in the space to get to that ending.

  Bottom line: it was decent writing and perhaps in a more receptive mood I would have "got it", but as it is, I didn't. It seemed an attempt for something that the book never got to be, instead I got something fractured that didn't feel neither original nor magical.

  I am going to do this in Javascript, because it's easier to write and easier for you to test (just press F12 in this page and write it in the console), but it applies to any programming language. The issue arises when you want to execute a background job (a setTimeout, an async method that you do not wait, a Task.Run, anything that runs on another execution path than the current one) inside a for loop. You have the index variable (from 0 to 10, for example) and you want to use it as a parameter for the background job. The result is not as expected, as all the background jobs use the same value for some reason.

  Let's see a bit of code:

// just write in the console numbers from 0 to 9
// but delayed for a second
for (var i=0; i<10; i++)
{
  setTimeout(function() { console.log(i); },1000);
}

// the result: 10 values of 10 after a second!

But why? The reason is the "scope" of the i variable. In this case, classic (EcmaScript 5) code that uses var generates a value that exists everywhere in the current scope, which for ES5 is defined as the function this code is running from or the global scope if executed directly. If after this loop we write console.log(i) we get 10, because the loop has incremented i, got it to 10 - which is not less than 10, and exited the loop. The variable is still available. That explains why, a second later, all the functions executed in setTimeout will display 10: that is the current value of the same variable.

Now, we can solve this by introducing a local scope inside the for. In ES5 it looked really cumbersome:

for (var i=0; i<10; i++)
{
  (function() {
    var li = i;
    setTimeout(function() { console.log(li); },1000);
  })();
}

The result is the expected one, values from 0 to 9.

What happened here? We added an anonymous function and executed it. This generates a function scope. Inside it, we added a li variable (local i) and then set executing the timeout using that variable. For each value from 0 to 9, another scope is created with another li variable. If after this code we write console.log(li) we get an error because li is undefined in this scope. It is a bit confusing, but there are 10 li variables in 10 different scopes.

Now, EcmaScript 6 wanted to align Javascript with other common use modern languages so they introduced local scope for variables by defining them differently. We can now use let and const to define variables that are either going to get modified or remain constant. They also exist only in the scope of an execution block (between curly brackets).

We can write the same code from above like this:

for (let i=0; i<10; i++) {
  const li = i;
  setTimeout(()=>console.log(li),1000);
}

In fact, this is more complex than it has to be, but that's because another Javascript quirk. We can simplify this for the same result as:

for (let i=0; i<10; i++) {
  setTimeout(()=>console.log(i),1000);
}

Why? Because we "let" the index variable, so it only exists in the context of the loop execution block, but apparently it creates one version of the variable for each loop run. Strangely enough, though, it doesn't work if we define it as "const".

Just as an aside, this is way less confusing with for...of loops because you can declare the item as const. Don't use "var", though, or you get the same problem we started with!

const arr=[1,2,3,4,5];
for (const item of arr) setTimeout(()=>console.log(item),1000);

In other languages, like C#, variables exist in the scope of their execution block by default, but using a for loop will not generate multiple versions of the same variable, so you need to define a local variable inside the loop to avoid this issue. Here is an example in C#:

for (var i=0; i<10; i++)
{
    var li = i;
    Task.Run(() => Console.WriteLine(li));
}
Thread.Sleep(1000);

Note that in the case above we added a Thread.Sleep to make sure the app doesn't close while the tasks are running and that the values of the loop will not necessarily be written in order, but that's beside the point here. Also, var is the way variables are defined in C# when the type can be inferred by the compiler, it is not the same as the one in Javascript.

I hope you now have a better understanding of variable scope.

  If you are like me, you want to first establish a nice skeleton app that has everything just right before you start writing your actual code. However, as weird as it may sound, I couldn't find a way to use command line parameters with dependency injection, in the same simple way that one would use a configuration file with IOptions<T> for example. This post shows you how to use CommandLineParser, a nice library that handler everything regarding command line parsing, but in a dependency injection friendly way.

  In order to use command line arguments, we need to obtain them. For any .NET Core application or .NET Framework console application you get it from the parameters of the static Main method from Program. Alternately, you can use Environment.CommandLine, which is actually a string, not an array of strings. But all of these are kind of nudging you towards some ugly code that either has a dependency on the static Environment, either has code early in the application to handle command line arguments, or stores the arguments somehow. What we want is complete separation of modules in our application.

  How can we get the arguments by injection? By creating a new type that encapsulates the simple string array.

// encapsulates the arguments
public class CommandLineArguments
{
    public CommandLineArguments(string[] args)
    {
        this.Args = args;
    }

    public string[] Args { get; }
}

// adds the type to dependency injection
services.AddSingleton<CommandLineArguments>(new CommandLineArguments(args));
// the generic type declaration is superfluous, but the code is easy to read

  With this, we can access the command line arguments anywhere by injecting a CommandLineArguments object and accessing the Args property. But this still implies writing command line parsing code wherever we need that data. We could add some parsing logic in the CommandLineArguments class so that instead of the command line arguments array it would provide us with a strong typed value of the type we want. But then we would put business logic in a command line encapsulation class. Why would it know what type of options we need and why would we need only one type of options? 

  What we would like is something like

public SomeClass(IOptions<MyCommandLineOptions> clOptions) {...}

  Now, we could use this system by writing more complicated that adds a ConfigurationSource and then declaring that certain types are command line options. But I don't want that either for several reasons:

  • writing configuration providers is complex code and at some moment in time one has to ask how much are they willing to write in order to get some damn arguments from the command line
  • declaring the types at the beginning does provide some measure of centralized validation, but on the other hand it's declaring types that we need in business logic somewhere in service configuration, which personally I do not like

  What I propose is adding a new type of IOptions, one that is specific to command line arguments:

// declare the interface for generic command line options
public interface ICommandLineOptions<T> : IOptions<T>
    where T : class, new() { }

// add it to service configuration
services.AddSingleton(typeof(ICommandLineOptions<>), typeof(CommandLineOptions<>));

// put the parsing logic inside the implementation of the interface
public class CommandLineOptions<T> : ICommandLineOptions<T>
    where T : class, new()
{
    private T _value;
    private string[] _args;

    // get the arguments via injection
    public CommandLineOptions(CommandLineArguments arguments)
    {
        _args = arguments.Args;
    }

    public T Value
    {
        get
        {
            if (_value==null)
            {
                // set the value by parsing command line arguments
            }
            return _value;
        }
    }

}

  Now, in order to make it work, we will use CommandLineParser which functions in a very simple way:

  • declare a Parser
  • create a POCO class that has properties decorated with attributes that define what kind of command line parameter they are
  • parse the command line arguments string array into the type of class declared above
  • get the value or handle errors

  Also, to follow the now familiar Microsoft pattern, we will write an extension method to register both arguments and the mechanism for ICommandLineOptions. The end result is:

// extension class to add the system to services
public static class CommandLineExtensions
{
    public static IServiceCollection AddCommandLineOptions(this IServiceCollection services, string[] args)
    {
        return services
            .AddSingleton<CommandLineArguments>(new CommandLineArguments(args))
            .AddSingleton(typeof(ICommandLineOptions<>), typeof(CommandLineOptions<>));
    }
}

public class CommandLineArguments // defined above

public interface ICommandLineOptions<T> // defined above

// full class implementation for command line options
public class CommandLineOptions<T> : ICommandLineOptions<T>
    where T : class, new()
{
    private T _value;
    private string[] _args;

    public CommandLineOptions(CommandLineArguments arguments)
    {
        _args = arguments.Args;
    }

    public T Value
    {
        get
        {
            if (_value==null)
            {
                using (var writer = new StringWriter())
                {
                    var parser = new Parser(configuration =>
                    {
                        configuration.AutoHelp = true;
                        configuration.AutoVersion = false;
                        configuration.CaseSensitive = false;
                        configuration.IgnoreUnknownArguments = true;
                        configuration.HelpWriter = writer;
                    });
                    var result = parser.ParseArguments<T>(_args);
                    result.WithNotParsed(errors => HandleErrors(errors, writer));
                    result.WithParsed(value => _value = value);
                }
            }
            return _value;
        }
    }

    private static void HandleErrors(IEnumerable<Error> errors, TextWriter writer)
    {
        if (errors.Any(e => e.Tag != ErrorType.HelpRequestedError && e.Tag != ErrorType.VersionRequestedError))
        {
            string message = writer.ToString();
            throw new CommandLineParseException(message, errors, typeof(T));
        }
    }
}

// usage when configuring dependency injection
services.AddCommandLineOptions(args);

Enjoy!

Now there are some quirks in the implementation above. One of them is that the parser class generates the usage help by writing it to a TextWriter (default being Console.Error), but since we want this to be encapsulated, we declare our own StringWriter and then store the generated help if any errors. In the case above, I am storing the help text as the exception message, but it's the principle that matters.

Also, with this system one can ask for multiple types of command line options classes, depending on the module, without the need to declare said types at the configuration of dependency injection. The downside is that if you want validation of the command line options at the very beginning, you have to write extra code. In the way implemented above, the application will fail when first asking for a command line option that cannot be mapped on the command line arguments.

As a bonus, here is the way to define an option class that CommandLineParser will parse from the arguments:

// the way we want to use the app is
// FileUtil <command> [-loglevel loglevel] [-quiet] -output <outputFile> file1 file2 .. file10
public class FileUtilOptions
{
    // use Value for parameters with no name
    [Value(0, Required = true, HelpText = "You have to enter a command")]
    public string Command { get; set; }

    // use Option for named parameters
    [Option('l',"loglevel",Required = false, HelpText ="Log level can be None, Normal, Verbose")]
    public string LogLevel { get; set; }

    // use bool for named parameters with no value
    [Option('q', "quiet", Default = false, Required = false, HelpText = "Quiet mode produces no console output")]
    public bool Quiet { get; set; }

    // Required for required values
    [Option('o', "output", Required = true, HelpText = "Output file is required")]
    public string OutputFile { get; set; }

    // use Min/Max for enumerables
    [Value(1, Min = 1, Max = 10, HelpText = "At least one file name and at most 10")]
    public IEnumerable<string> Files { get; set; }
}

Note that the short style of a parameter needs to be used with a dash, the long one with two dashes:

  • -o outputFile.txt - correct (value outputFile.txt)
  • --output outputFile.txt - correct (value outputFile.txt)
  • -output outputFile.txt - incorrect (value utput and outputFile.txt is considered an unnamed argument)

  I am writing this post to make people aware of the changes that happen around them because of the Covid pandemic. How easy was it for them to pop up and how many of these "extraordinary measures" will stick with us after we get rid of the virus? 

  I wake up and turn on BBC News. First reporting of the day is the mass graves in the US. Yeah, I was surprised, too... but just a little bit. Mass graves? Aren't those things that happen when people want to kill a whole bunch of other people? Like conflict or ethnic cleansing or whatever the euphemism of the day is for war? And in the US? Home of the brave, the free, the rich and the apathetic? Apparently New York has had a special little island close by to use as the dumping ground for dead people that don't have money or relatives or names. It's been a human garbage bin for 150 years!

  Then I open up YouTube and watch this video that is unrelated to the virus, but at the beginning of the video they talk about "the virus that we cannot name". Apparently YouTube has rules to protect "the truth" by censoring free speech. And yes, it's not the government, it's a private company that pretty much can do whatever it freaking wants, and what it wants if for you to not speak some specific words. Facebook does it, your search engine does it, TV stations do it. I open a news site and I see an article about a conspiracy theorist who was "allowed" to speak on BBC about his dumbass ideas. Ofcom, the media regulator in the UK also has rules about what people can say or not on TV. Next article is about a movie about xenophobes in an elevator picking on an Asian woman who dares cough. The whole idea of the article was to wonder if the film was "unethical" or if it is too soon for Covid movies. Who gets to decide what is true or not, hurtful or not. This is an older question, but now it's come into contrast.

  I go out and I see a military police car, all armored, with a gun rack on top, police stopping cars passing by to check the papers of the drivers. Every minute or so a patrol car would pass, blinking lights on. And the new rules. We are now at the eighth iteration of a military ordnance telling civilians what to do. Governments have instantly given themselves as much power as possible, some using it to further their own agenda, like the prime minister of Hungary moving quickly to pick on gay people. And yes, Israelis laugh at the world going all brisly about these rules that most believe a bit extreme, regardless of how necessary, because in Israel they have these kind of rules into their regular constitution. This did not stop Netanyahu to get even more power and use it immediately when he could. And this without mentioning Trump. There was a scene in the American TV series Homeland where it is asked "What do weak presidents do to appear strong?" "They go to war". But we are not in war.

  How did this happen? How did we reach a point in which the military is telling everybody what to do, corporations and pundits and social pressure tells us what to say and governments get extra judicial power that they use however they see fit in a time of peace?

  When this whole thing started, the first thing I googled (again, Google) was what to do in case you are infected. And all the pages that came about were about Covid and the official recommendation from both politicians and doctors: stay in, wash your hands, leave masks to the medical professionals, don't self medicate, report immediately if you have symptoms. So I repeated the query, now with -covid so that I see what people were saying about what to do when you get a virus *before* all of this started. And lo' and behold, the advice was completely different: hand washing (or waving) doesn't really do much, do self medicate with anti inflammatory drugs to avoid a cytokine storm, take vitamin D (or generate it by being in the sun) and zinc, vitamins C and E also help, masks help with both sick and healthy and, most of all, keep hydrated by drinking lots of liquids, preferably warm, like soups. Slowly, the "expert view" is changing back to what people in the field were saying from before the declaration of the pandemic.

  This is also important: the definition of pandemic is a disease that is prevalent over a country or the entire world. Practically it became a pandemic from the moment the World Health Organization declared it so. Our belief in the terms that are vehiculated gives them power. I am not saying that Covid is not prevalent over the world, or that you should not take it seriously, but things only began to move when enough people were convinced that it was real. Before action, an ideological pandemic has to happen. The brutal decisions that are being taken in your name right now are based on your belief in various narratives that may be correct or not. BTW, if I search now on Google on the same thing a search page dedicated to Covid-19 appears. 

  The question is not of truth, but of utility. If it is not useful, who cares it is true? is the old adage. But then the question becomes: useful to whom? At first they wanted you to come to the hospital, so that they can have as much information and control as possible and to isolate you, then get all the people you came into contact with and do the same to them. It is good for us all as a community, but not particularly for the sick person who is now confined in haste, perhaps with other people that are infected so they can swap strains and being taken care of in medical systems unfit for that job. Wearing masks doesn't do much if you are in an infected place, but it can protect both you and others in more relaxed environments, like public transportation or on the street, not to mention that it's a simple way to remind you not to touch your face. But they were way more useful to medical personnel and so they spun this story where you should not use them unless you know you are sick. When the number of masks and the number of sick increased, the narrative changed to use masks, but don't come to the hospital.

  I've said it before and I will repeat it at nauseam because it is true, it is important and it is verifiable: the only reason the very deadly pandemic in 1918 was called The Spanish Flu was that Spain was neutral and therefore free to report on people getting sick and dying of a disease. All the other countries were caught in their little World War that killed way less people, but that put the military in power to enact censorship. It is also the reason why most of people today haven't even heard of the 1918 influenza pandemic. We are not in a declared war right now, but the reaction of authorities all over the world is kind of the same. It's impossible to hide things in this world of social media and non stop global TV networks, right? Wrong. There were news outlets in 1918, too, and they all declared themselves independent. There are a billion films and books and plays about the heroes of WWI. Where are the ones about a virus that killed so many people? Things don't have to be hidden from you, just depicted a little differently than reality in a consistent way. Doesn't the current situation appear similar? And we are not in a war.

  Ask yourself this: what narrative is being spun around you and who does it benefit? Have you looked at the problems you have and actively searched for solutions that were not pushed towards you by others? The truth is out there, but you have to actually look for it. Yes, we need to find a solution to the virus that has spread around the world and kills people, but we are not at war. We have a problem and we have to solve it, that is it. So the next time some solemn guy with a grave face tells you what to do, ask yourself, why the hell is he wearing an uniform? We are not at war.

Intro

  As I was working on LInQer I was hooked on the multiple optimizations that I was finding. Do you want to compute the average of an iterable? You would need the total count and the sum of the items, which you can get in a single function that you can reuse to get the sum or the count. But what if the iterable is an integer range between 1 and 10? Then you can compute the sum and you already know the count. Inspired by that work and by other concepts like interval types or Maybe/Nullable types, I've decided to write this post, which I do not know if it will lead to any usable code.

What is an iterable/enumerable?

  In Javascript they call it an Iterable, in .NET you have IEnumerable. They mean the same thing: sources of values. With new concepts like async/await you can use Observables as Enumerables as well, although they are theoretically diametrically opposing patterns. In both languages they are implemented as having a method that returns an iterator/enumerator, an object that can move to the next value, give you the next value and maybe reset itself. You can define any stream of values like that, having one or more values or, indeed, none. From now own I will discuss in terms of .NET nomenclature, but I see no reason why it wouldn't apply to any other language that implements this feature.

  For example an array is defined as an IEnumerable<T> in .NET. Its enumerator will return false if trying to move to the next value and the array is empty, or true if there is at least a value and the current value will return the first value in the array. Move next again and it will return true or false depending on whether there is a next value. But there is no need for the values to exist to have an Enumerable. One could write an object that would return all the positive integer numbers. It's length would be infinite and the values would only be generated when requested. There is no differentiation between an Enumerable and a generator in .NET, but there is in Javascript. For this reason whenever I will use the term generator, I will mean an object that generates values rather than produce them from a source of existing ones.

The NULL controversy

  A very popular InfoQ post describes the introduction of the NULL concept in programming languages a the billion dollar mistake. I am not so sure about that, but I can concede they make good points. The alternative to using a special value to describe the absence of a value is use an "option" object that either has Some value or it has None. You would check the existence of a value by calling a method to tell you if it has a value and you would get the value from the current value property. Doesn't it sound familiar? It's a more specific case of an Enumerator! Another popular solution to remove NULLs from code is to never return values from your methods, but arrays. An empty array would represent no value. An array is an Enumerable!

And that last idea opens up an interesting possibility: instead of one or none, you can have multiple values. What then? What would a multiplication mean? What about a decision block?

The LInQer experience

  If you know me, you are probably fed up with me plugging LInQer as the greatest thing since fire was invented. But that's because it is! And while implementing .NET LInQ as a Javascript library I've played with some very interesting concepts.

  For example, while implementing the Last operator on enumerables, I had two different implementations depending on whether one could know the length in advance and one could use indexed access to the values. An array of one billion values has no problem giving you the last item in it because of two things: you know where the array ends and you can access any item at any position without having to go through other values. You just take the value at index one billion minus one. If you would have a generator, though, the only way to get the last value would be to enumerate again and again and again and only when moving to the next value would fail you would have the last value as the last one. And of course, this would be bad if there are no bounds to the generator.

  But there is more. What about very common statistical values like the sum? This, of course, applies to numbers. The Enumerable need not produce numbers, so in other contexts it means nothing. Then there are concepts like statistical distribution. One can make some assumptions if they know the distribution of values. A constant yet infinite generator of numbers will always have the same average value. It would return the same value, regardless of index.

  I spent a lot of time doing sorting that only needs a part of the enumerable, or partial sorting. I've implemented a Quicksort algorithm that works faster than the default sort when there are enough values and that can ignore the parts of the array that I don't need. Also, there are specific algorithm to return the last or first N items. All of this depends on functions that determine the order of items. Randomness is also interesting, as it needs to take into consideration the change of probabilities as the list of items increases with each request. Sampling was fun, too!

  Then there were operators like Distinct or Group which needed to use functions to determine sameness.

  With all this work, I've never intended to make this more than what LInQ is in .NET: a way to dynamically filter and map and enumerate sequences of items without having to go through them all or to create intermediate but unnecessary arrays. What I am talking about now is taking things further and deeper.

Continuous intervals

  What if the Enumerable abstraction is not enough? For example one could define the interval of real numbers between 0 and 1. You can never enumerate the next value, but there are definite boundaries, a clear distribution of values, a very obvious average. What about series and limits? If a generator generates values that depend on previous values, like a geometric progression or a Fibonacci series, you can sometimes compute the minimum or maximum value of the items in it, or of their sums.  

Tools

  So we have more concepts in our bag now:

  • move next (function)
  • current value
  • item length (could be infinite or just unknown)
  • indexed access (or not)
  • boundaries (min, max, limits)
  • distribution (probabilities)
  • order
  • discreteness

  How could we use these?

Concrete cases

  There is one famous probabilities problem: what are the chances you will get a particular value by throwing a number of dice. And it is interesting because there is a marked difference between using one die or more. Using at least two dice and plotting the values you get after multiple throws you get what is called a Normal distribution, a Gauss curve, and that's because there are more combinations of values that sum up to 6 than there are for 2.

  How can we declare a value that belongs to an interval? One solution is to add all kinds of metadata or validations. But what if we just declare an iterable with one value that has a random value between 1 and 6? And what if we add it with another one? What would that mean?

  Here is a demo example. It's silly and it looks too much like the Calculator demos you see for unit testing and I really hate those, but I do want to just demo this. What else can we do with this idea? I will continue to think about it.

class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            var die1 = new RandomGenerator(1, 6);
            var die2 = new RandomGenerator(1, 6);
            // just get the value
            var value1 = die1.First() + die2.First();
            // compose the two dice using Linq, then get value
            var value2 = die1.Zip(die2).Select(z => z.First + z.Second).First();
            // compose the two dice using operator overload, then get value
            var value3 = (die1 + die2).First();
            var min = (die1 + die2).Min();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Implemented Min alone for demo purposes
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T"></typeparam>
        public interface IGenerator<T> : IEnumerable<T>
        {
            int Min();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Generates integer values from minValue to maxValue inclusively
        /// </summary>
        public class RandomGenerator : IGenerator<int>
        {
            private readonly Random _rnd;
            private readonly int _minValue;
            private readonly int _maxValue;

            public RandomGenerator(int minValue, int maxValue)
            {
                _rnd = new Random();
                this._minValue = minValue;
                this._maxValue = maxValue;
            }

            public static IGenerator<int> operator +(RandomGenerator gen1, IGenerator<int> gen2)
            {
                return new AdditionGenerator(gen1, gen2);
            }

            public IEnumerator<int> GetEnumerator()
            {
                while (true)
                {
                    yield return _rnd.Next(_minValue, _maxValue + 1);
                }
            }

            IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()
            {
                return ((IEnumerable<int>)this).GetEnumerator();
            }

            public int Min()
            {
                return _minValue;
            }
        }
        
        /// <summary>
        /// Combines two generators through addition
        /// </summary>
        internal class AdditionGenerator : IGenerator<int>
        {
            private IGenerator<int> _gen1;
            private IGenerator<int> _gen2;

            public AdditionGenerator(Program.RandomGenerator gen1, Program.IGenerator<int> gen2)
            {
                this._gen1 = gen1;
                this._gen2 = gen2;
            }

            public IEnumerator<int> GetEnumerator()
            {
                var en1 = _gen1.GetEnumerator();
                var en2 = _gen2.GetEnumerator();
                while (true)
                {
                    var hasValue = en1.MoveNext();
                    if (hasValue != en2.MoveNext())
                    {
                        throw new InvalidOperationException("One generator stopped providing values before the other");
                    }
                    if (!hasValue)
                    {
                        yield break;
                    }
                    yield return en1.Current + en2.Current;
                }

            }

            IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()
            {
                return ((IEnumerable<int>)this).GetEnumerator();
            }

            public int Min()
            {
                return _gen1.Min() + _gen2.Min();
            }
        }
    }

Conclusion (so far)

I am going to think about this some more. It has a lot of potential as type abstraction, but to be honest, I deal very little in numerical values and math and statistics, so I don't see what I personally could do with this. I suspect, though, that other people might find it very useful or at least interesting. And yes, I am aware of mathematical concepts like interval arithmetic and I am sure there are a ton of existing libraries that already do something like that and much more, but I am looking at this more from the standpoint of computer science and quasi-primitive types than from a mathematical or numerical perspective. If you have any suggestions or ideas or requests, let me know!